Imperial Music

مـطرب عـشق عجب ساز ونوایی دارد
نـقـش هـر پرده کـه زد راه بجایی دارد
عـالم از نـالـه عـشـاق مبادا خـالی
که خوش آهنگ و فـرح بخش صدایی دارد

Authentic Imperial Persian Court Music is a system of music that is not copied and conforms to the original concept of artistic creativity & music as to not reproduce two single musical works but rather reproduce essential features of Persian music, be true and accurate, authoritative but not be false or an imitation of other works of art or be made to look like an original work of another artist, which would not make the body of work an authentic musical piece or a work of art but rather a counterfeit piece of artistic expression & music.

Authentic Imperial Persian Court Music was and is designed to determine & set in motion all aspects of the society covering a wide & vast range of Greater Persian’s society needs and ranges from similarities in styles, techniques and modes of all schools of music of the vast & greater Persian cultural regions ranging all the way from Al-Andalus, Spain, Macedonia, Mesopotamia, Iran, Central Asia, Afghanistan, parts of Pakistan and Northern India and ending all the way to North Western China.

The imperial musical system covers topics such as the military school of music, spiritual schools of music, masculine & feminine rhythms, work songs, traditional & folk schools of music, dance, spiritualism, sensuality, classical & non-traditional schools of music & relates to all dimensions of rhythm, sounds and music of all aspects & emotions of human life as relevant to the respective society. This is known as the "Darbari" or Imperial Persian Musical system of the Greater Persian Culture.

Since the begining of time and dating back to the Hurrian songs music has been employed in the royal courts through-out the Middle East. Also of interest is that music in Greece and India both have cosmic relevence, one must then ask if this was the case in Greece and India, what must have been going on in between in Persia?

One such example is one of about 36 such hymns in cuneiform writing, found on fragments of clay tablets excavated in the 1950s from the Royal Palace at Ugarit, despite the many difficulties, it is clearly a religious text concerning offerings to the goddess Nikkal, wife of the moon god, making it the oldest surviving substantially complete work of notated music in the world.

Also of interest is the Ancient Greek Pythagoras concept of Musica Universalis (lit. universal music, or Music of the Spheres) or Harmony of the Spheres is an ancient philosophical concept that regards proportions in the movements of celestial bodies—the Sun, Moon, and planets—as a form of musica (the Medieval Latin term for music).

It is highly probable that the Greek initiates gained their knowledge of the philosophic and therapeutic aspects of music from the Egyptians, who, in turn, considered Hermes the founder of the art.

According to one legend, this god constructed the first lyre by stretching strings across the concavity of a turtle shell. Both Isis and Osiris were patrons of music and poetry.

Plato, in describing the antiquity of these arts among the Egyptians, declared that songs and poetry had existed in Egypt for at least ten thousand years, and that these were of such an exalted and inspiring nature that only gods or godlike men could have composed them.

Pythagoras told the Egyptian priests that Thoth gave him the ability to hear the music of the spheres. He believed that only Egyptians of the 'right' bloodline, passing successful initiations, could enter the temples and learn the mysteries set in place by the gods at the beginning of time. To learn more he had to win their confidence and needed to appear as a royal soul, begat of the gods and above the sins of man.

In the Mysteries the lyre was regarded as the secret symbol of the human constitution, the body of the instrument representing the physical form, the strings the nerves, and the musician the spirit. Playing upon the nerves, the spirit thus created the harmonies of normal functioning, which, however, became discords if the nature of man were defiled.

Pythagoras proposed that the Sun, Moon and planets all emit their own unique hum (orbital resonance) based on their orbital revolution, and that the quality of life on Earth reflects the tenor of celestial sounds.

Subsequently, Plato described astronomy and music as "twinned" studies of sensual recognition: astronomy for the eyes, music for the ears, and both requiring knowledge of numerical proportions. The philosopher Plato also suggests in the Republic that music has a direct effect on the soul. It is often thought that music has the ability to affect our emotions, intellect, and psychology; it can assuage our loneliness or incite our passions.

In expounding the Eastern system of esoteric philosophy, the colors relate to the septenary constitution of man and the seven states of matter as follows:


Violet, Chaya, or Etheric Double, Ether, blue-violet; to Aquarius, pure violet; and to Pisces violet-red
Indigo, Higher Manas or Spiritual Intelligence, Critical State called Air
Blue, Auric Envelope, Steam or Vapor, green-blue; to Sagittarius, pure blue; to Capricorn
Green, Lower Manas or Animal Soul, Critical State, yellow-green; to Libra, pure green; to Scorpio
Yellow, Buddhi or Spiritual Soul, Water, orange-yellow; to Leo, pure yellow; to Virgo
Orange, Prana or Life Principle, Critical State, red-orange; to Gemini, pure orange; to Cancer
Red, Kama Rupa or Seat of Animal Life, Ice, Taurus

This arrangement of the colors of the spectrum and the musical notes of the octave necessitates a different grouping of the planets in order to preserve their proper tone and color analogies. Thus do becomes Mars; re, the sun; mi, Mercury; fa, Saturn; sol, Jupiter; la, Venus; si (ti) the moon.

ناله سُرنا و تهدید دهل
چیزکی ماند بدان ناقور کُل
بانگ گردش های چرخ است اینکه خلق
می نوازندش به طنبور و به حلق
پس حکیمان گفته اند این لحن ها
از دوار چرخ بگرفتیم ما

Few people have been more closely related in origin and throughout history than the people of India and the people of Iran. The peoples of India and Iran, two ancient neighboring civilizations, have enjoyed close historical links through the ages. They had a common homeland and share a common linguistic and racial past. Over the several millennium they interacted an enriched each other in the fields of language, religion, music, arts, culture, food and other traditions.

It is said that Bahram Gour requested his father-in-law, who was India's monarch, to send 12,000 musicians to Iran in order to entertain the Iranian nation by playing Indian music. The consequent impression left on Iran's music has been talked about to some extent and vice-vera.

Examples include Amīr Khusraw (also Khusrow, Hazrat Khusrow, Ameer Khusru) Dehlawī (meaning Amir Khusrau of Delhi) (امیر خسرو دہلوی) who is also credited with introducing Persian, Arabic and Turkish elements into Indian classical music and was the originator of the khayal and tarana styles of music.

Tansen the magical musician!

Considered as the greatest musician in India, Tansen (1506 - 1589) is instrumental in the creation of the classical music that dominates the north of India. He was considered as one of the Navaratnas (Nine Gems) in the court of Emperor Akbar. Tansen was born at a time when a number of Persian and Central Asian motifs were fusing with Indian classical music; he could bring rain by singing in a particular Raag known as Megh Malhar. Similarly he could start a fire by singing in Raag Deepak. His influence was central to creating the Hindustani classical ethos as we know today.

The ethos or Rasa is an emotion inspired in an audience by a performer. They are the juice or mental state that is the dominant emotional theme of a work of art or the primary feeling that is evoked in the person that views, reads or hears such a work. All Indian Raags have associated aesthetics as does Persian music. In Indian music this is known as Rasa and in Persian music this is known as Hal.

In Persian music, the manner of playing is much more important than what one plays. And the manner of playing is conditioned by "hal". How to translate this word which escapes definition? Hal is an intense state of the soul, it is the interior fire which must animate the artist like the mystic.... When he attains the high point of this state, the artist plays with an extraordinary facility of execution. His sound changes. The musical phrase liberates its secret. The creativity gushes forth.

It seems that the very essence of the music manifests itself delivered from the usual inerferences of the human personality. The world becomes transfigured, unveiling its marvelous visages, and across an ineffable transparency which abolishes the asctual barriers between the musician and his auditor, offers itself to the direct comprehension of every being capable of sensing. Hal is the fruit of authenticity. The authentic musician is he who who plays or sings under the force of an irresisible interior impulse. -"Music and Song in Persia"

In Sufism, Haal or ḥāl (Arabic, meaning "state" or "condition", plural ahwal (aḥwāl)) is a special-purpose, temporary state of consciousness, generally understood to be the product of a Sufi's spiritual practices while on his way toward God.

A ḥāl is by nature transient and one should not attempt to prolong it. It results from psychological or spiritual influences which affect the man during his progress towards God.

Related concepts are ecstasy (wajd), annihilation (istilam), happiness (bast), despondency (qabd), awakening (sahû), intoxication (sukr), etc.

They arise like flashes on the horizon, blinding flashes of lightning which disappear immediately. However, these stages are necessary for the liberating experience of Man; thanks to them he may distinguish the contingent from the consciousness anything, except that which is destined to endure.

According to Ibn Arabi, Fanaa (al-fanâ) (extinction) is the apex of the aḥwāl.

Since aḥwāl are considered in Sufism to be gifts from God, there is nothing on the part of human beings that can be done to ensure that they are granted, for man is merely the receiver. Yet, unlike material gifts exchanged among men, man cannot do anything to avoid experiencing these special states. No prerequisites have been determined for man to receive any particular ḥāl since it has been noted that even the unreligious occasionally experience states that have been granted by God. The explanation given for this phenomenon follows from the idea that there is an overabundance of divine grace and, thus, it must necessarily come into contact with nonbelievers at times. Likewise, those that are in the early stages of their spirituality may experience aḥwāl just as much as the more advanced Sufis.

Generally in Sufism there is a clear distinction between the various aḥwāl given by God and the Sufi term for a stage, maqām. The main difference between the two terms is the idea that a ḥāl is a gift from God, and cannot be sought after, whereas a maqām is only attained through rigorous spiritual practice. In this way, a maqām is something that can be pursued and whose attainment relies heavily on the actions of man. As well, once one has achieved a particular station, they remain in that station until they have moved onto a higher one; thus making it more permanent that the different aḥwāl that man can experience.

As the Persian use of a ḥāl simply constitutes a leaving of one’s normal consciousness, it maintains a great importance when speaking of Persian art, both musically and visually. In fact, it has become so common in among Persian artists that it is now used synonymously with an artist’s ability to achieve authenticity (eṣālat). It is therefore possible for one to make the statement that an artist ‘has ḥāl’, ‘plays with ḥāl’, or even that he is ‘experiencing his own ḥāl.’

Especially in Persian music ḥāl is significant because musicians tend to follow the notion that the harmonies and melodies found in their works are able to bring a listener from one state to another. Reaching certain states also allows the musician himself to perform a piece exactly as it was originally written, either by him or someone else. This idea is heavily based on the Sufi use of the term, though it does not follow it strictly.

In Indian music there are 4 pairs of rasas. For instance, Hāsya arises out of Sringara. The Aura of a frightened person is black, and the aura of an angry person is red. Bharata Muni established the following rasas.

Śṛngāram (शृङ्गारं) Love, Attractiveness. Presiding deity: Vishnu. Colour:green.
Hāsyam (हास्यं) Laughter, Mirth, Comedy. Presiding deity: Ganesha. Colour: white.
Raudram (रौद्रं) Fury. Presiding deity: Rudra. Colour: red.
Kāruṇyam (कारुण्यं) Compassion, Tragedy. Presiding deity: Yama. Colour:dove coloured.
Bībhatsam (बीभत्सं) Disgust, Aversion. Presiding deity: Shiva. Colour: blue
Bhayānakam (भयानकं) Horror, Terror. Presiding deity: Kala. Colour: black
Vīram (वीरं) Heroic mood. Presiding deity: Indra. Colour:wheatish brown
Adbhutam (अद्भुतं) Wonder, Amazement. Presiding deity: Brahma. Colour: yellow
Śāntam Peace or tranquility. deity: Vishnu. Colour: white

In addition to the nine Rasas, two more appeared later (esp. in literature): Additional rasas:

Vātsalya (वात्सल्य) Parental Love
Bhakti (भक्ति) Spiritual Devotion

A number of descendants and disciples have also considerably enriched the tradition. Almost all gharanas of Hindustani classical music claim some connection with the Tansen lineage. According to legend, he was noted for his imitations of animal calls and birdsong.

Tansen joined Akbar's court eventually becoming one of the treasured Navaratnas (lit. nava=nine, ratna=jewel) of his court. It was Akbar who gave him the honorific title Mian, and he is usually referred to today as Mian Tansen. Legend has it that in his first performance, he was gifted one lakh (100,000) gold coins.

The Key to imperial musical performances, based on Tansen's key, this is the pendant used by Tansen (The Magical Court Musician) of Akbar Shah Jahan (India).


In ancient Babylon, the planet Mercury was associated with the god Nabu, the divine scribe and god of wisdom. This demolishes the idea, so often repeated, that the planet was called Mercury because it is fast moving and so corresponds to the divine messenger, Hermes or Mercury.

Greek settlers in the East, after the conquests of Alexander, worshipped Nabu as Apollo, suggesting that he may also have been a god of poetry.

The Egyptian equivalent to Nabu was Tehuti, a name rendered by the Greeks as Thoth. He was one of the major gods of Egypt and personified the principle of reason.

He was the scribe of the gods in heaven; the inventor of all the arts and sciences practised on earth; and the recorder of the deeds of men, whose evidence decided their fate in the underworld.

The Egyptians summed up his powers by describing him as the "heart and tongue of Ra". In other words, Thoth represents divine reason and will, and the commands by which it is carried out: "The Lord by Wisdom hath founded the Earth", as Solomon put it.


Venus is we are told the most mysterious and occult of all planets. The mother aspect stands for the polar relationship that she, Venus , has to our earth, given that the gift of Manas and the incarnating sons of Mind came from her esoterically understood.

She is our polar opposite. Also, the concrete rays effect the feminine deva other half of man. The fifth ray brought together the animal and human kingdom via the spark of mind.

Beneficial Influences: Encourages concord, ends strife, procures a woman's love, aids in conception, works against barrenness, causes ability in generation, dissolves enchantments, causes peace between men and women, makes all kind of animals fruitful, cures melancholy, causes joyfulness, and brings good fortune.


One complete cycle of the moon takes exactly 28 days to complete, the same average time for a woman's menstrual cycle. This is no accident. A woman's body is something of a mirror of the moon and her ways. In many ways the difference between the sun and the moon are very similar to the differences between men and women.

The different personalities the moon presents throughout her cycle have perhaps the most profound affect on ritual workings than any other Time Correspondence. In order to coordinate your ritual workings with the cycles of the moon, you need to understand the moon & it's phases:

The Waxing Moon, The Full Moon, The Waning Moon, The Black Moon, The New Moon, The Waxing Crescent Moon, The Waxing Half Moon, The Waxing Gibbous Moon, The Full Moon, The Waning Gibbous Moon, The Waning Half Moon, The Waning Crescent Moon, etc.


In Mesopotamia, the planet Jupiter was known as Neberu and associated with the god Marduk. He was the patron god of Babylon, and considered equivalent to the older Sumerian god Enlil. The Assyrians in turn equated Enlil to their state god, Ashur.

Enlil was described as the king of the gods, and hence associated with rulership and wisdom. Those with Jupiter rising or culminating often display an imperious nature, self-will, or at the least confidence in their own judgement. The wisdom of Jupiter is the practical wisdom of everyday affairs, not the philosophy which belongs to Mercury.


The true essence of the Sun symbolism is its representation of primordial intellect, the manifestation of universal (cosmic, omnipresent) consciousness which transcends space-time and energy. Light!

The Human process of harmonizing with this force is called: at-onement, illumination or enlightenment. Atonement of a select group of their own initiated members and the awareness control of the 'profane' are the core of the activities of these dark priesthood societies - ancient and modern.

Symbol of sexual fertility, gives life to plants, animals, humans. In ancient Canaan the sun-god Baal was worshiped as a fertility deity.

The Sun is also a symbol of immortality or reincarnation. Just as the sun rises and sets each day, some people believe that you may die and then rise again.


In ancient Mesopotamia, the planet Mars was known as Salbatanu and associated with the god Nergal. The attributes of Nergal combined those that we associate with Mars and Pluto today: he was lord of the underworld and also connected with such dangers as infectious disease, fire, and warfare.

The Egyptian equivalent was considered by the Greeks to be Anhur. Originally the local god of Abydos, he became the manifestation of the strength of Ra. The imperialist Pharaohs of the New Kingdom worshipped him as a god of war; but he was equally popular with the common people, who called him the Saviour or the Good Warrior and invoked him as a protection against danger.


Astronomically, Ketu and Rahu denote the points of intersection of the paths of the Sun and the Moon as they move on the celestial sphere. Therefore, Rahu and Ketu are respectively called the north and the south lunar nodes. The fact that eclipses occur when the Sun and the Moon are at one of these points gives rise to the myth of the swallowing of the Sun and the Moon by the demon snake.

Ketu is generally referred to as a "shadow" planet. It is believed to have a tremendous impact on human lives and also the whole creation. In some special circumstances it helps someone achieve the zenith of fame. Ketu is often depicted with a gem or star on his head signifying a mystery light.

Ketu (Sanskrit: केतु, IAST: Ketú) is the descending lunar node. 'Ketu' is said to be the body of Rahu, after the head of the asura was cut off by God Vishnu. According to some accounts in Hindu mythology, Ketu belongs to Jaimini Gotra, whereas Rahu is form Paiteenasa gotra and hence both are totally different entities with distinct characteristics and not two parts of a common body.

In Hindu astrology Ketu represents karmic collections both good and bad, spirituality and supernatural influences. Ketu is associated with the Meena Avatar (Fish Incarnation) of Vishnu. Ketu signifies the spiritual process of the refinement of materialization to spirit and is considered both malefic and benefic, as it causes sorrow and loss, and yet at the same time turns the individual to God. In other words, it causes material loss in order to force a more spiritual outlook in the person.

Ketu is a karaka or indicator of intelligence, wisdom, non-attachment, fantasy, penetrating insight, derangement, and psychic abilities. Ketu is believed to bring prosperity to the devotee's family, removes the effects of snakebite and illness arising out of poisons. He grants good health, wealth and cattle to his devotees. Ketu is the lord of three nakshatras or lunar mansions: Ashvini, Magha and Mula.

Ketu is considered responsible for moksha, sannyasa, self-realization, gnana, a wavering nature, restlessness, the endocrine system and slender physique.

The people who come under the influence of Ketu can achieve great heights, most of them spiritual.


Long before Greek and Roman times, the Egyptians worshipped the luminary Atum or Ra, just as the Sumerians honored Utu and the Babylonians the god Shamash. Astronomers and priests celebrated this light of heaven as the "Universal Monarch," the "father" of civilization and the celestial prototype of kings.

According to "Masonic and Occult Symbols Illustrated" Moloch/Molek is none other than a pagan god with many names; one of which is Saturn:

"...let's look at who Osiris is. He committed incest with his sister, Isis, which resulted in the birth of Horus the Egyptian god of the dead as well as a Sun God .. Osiris is known by many other names in other countries ... In Thrace and Greece, he is known as Dionysus, the god of pleasures and of partying and wine ... Festivals held in Dionysus' honor often resulted in human sacrifices and orgiastic sexual rites.

The Phrygians know Osiris as Sabasius where he is honored as the solar deity (a sun god) who was represented by horns and his emblem was a serpent.

In other places, he is known by other names: Deouis, The Boy Jupiter, The Centaur, Orion, Saturn, The Boy Plutus, Iswara, The Winged One, Nimrod, Adoni, Hermes, Prometheus, Poseidon, Butes, Dardanus, Himeros, Imbors, Iasius, Zeus, Iacchus, Hu, Thor, Serapis, Ormuzd, Apollo, Thammuz, Atus, Hercules, Shiva, Moloch, and believe it or not, BAAL!"


Astronomically, Rahu and Ketu denote the points of intersection of the paths of the Sun and the Moon as they move on the celestial sphere. Therefore, Rahu and Ketu are respectively called the north and the south lunar nodes.

In Hindu tradition, Rahu is a decapitated head of an asura, that swallows the sun causing eclipses.

The fact that eclipses occur when the Sun and the Moon are at one of these points gives rise to the myth of the swallowing of the Sun and the Moon by the demon snake.

He is depicted in art as a serpent with no body riding a chariot drawn by eight black horses. Rahu is one of the navagrahas (nine planets) in Vedic astrology and is paired with Ketu. The time of day considered to be under the influence of Rahu is called Rahu kala and is considered inauspicious.

In Vedic astrology Rahu dasha can either be the best time of any person's life or plunge him into deep trouble depending on which planet is controlling him and which bhava or pattern of life like longevity, pleasures etc. he is aspecting or controlling.

ساقیا ما ز ثریا به زمین افتادیم
گوش خود بر دم شش تای طرب بنهادیم
دل رنجور به طنبور نوایی دارد
دل صد پاره خود را به نوایش دادیم
به خرابات بدستیم از آن رو مستیم
کوی دیگر نشناسیم در این کوه زادیم

The Lion and Sun (Persian: شیر و خورشید‎‎, Šir o Xoršid) is one of the main emblems of Iran, the lion and sun symbol is based largely on astronomical and astrological configurations: the ancient sign of the sun in the house of Leo, which itself is traced backed to Babylonian astrology and Near Eastern traditions.

Under Safavid and the first Qajar kings, it became more associated with Shia Islam. During the Safavid era, the lion and sun stood for the two pillars of society, the state and the Islamic religion. In the 19th century, European visitors at the Qajar court attributed the lion and sun to remote antiquity; since then, it has acquired a nationalistic interpretation. In Islamic astrology the zodiacal Lion was the 'house' of the sun. This notion has "unquestionably" an ancient Mesopotamian origin.

Dating back to antiquity, the use of certain mantras related to Surya (Sun) in India, The Great Hymn to the Aten (Sun God) in Egypt as well as Zoroastrian hymns in praise of the Sun (Niyayesh Khorshid or Hymn to the Sun) suggests that music in Persia also had certain cosmic relevance albeit through a religous context such as mantras and hymns such as the Zoroastrian songs.

Since ancient times there was a close connection between the sun gods and the lion in the lore of the zodiac. It is known that, the sun, at its maximum strength between July 20 and August 20 was in the 'house' of the Lion.

چون ماه ترکان برآید بلند
ز خورشید ایرانش آید گزند

Khorshīd or Khorshēd (Persian: خورشید‎‎, meaning the Sun or the "Radiant Sun"), also spelled as Khurshed and Khurshid is also known as Surya, Mitra or Mehr for its life giving and nourishing properties. Surya represents the eternal soul, will-power, fame, the eyes, who controls the order of the cosmos, general vitality, courage, kingship, father, highly placed persons and authority. The Sun has alternately been interpreted as symbol of the king, Jamshid, the mythical king of Iran, and the motherland whom is also credited with inventing music in ancient Persia.

The Sword by most accounts refers to the sword of Islam, the sword is a symbol of purification. Here we experience the metaphorical sword cleanly piercing the spiritual soul of man & deals with discrimination of thought. In this light, swords cut away ignorance. Swords are also symbolic of Aggression, Protection, Courage, Strength, Action, Unity, Justice, Leadership, Decision, Duplicity.

The Lion is known as the 'King of Beasts'. Lions are superior, strong, and naturally dominant, they are also associated with royalty. In regards to the Lion and Sun motif, the lion can be seen in multiple poses, some resting subliminaly, some in guard & some holding the sword in attention.

Males in the pride generally do not hunt for prey, but protect their pride from threats. The females hunt for prey, and generally serve the male. The lion is a symbol of strength, authority, and natural leadership. Lions are symbols of Leadership, Honesty, Royalty, Authority, Courage, Boldness, Unity, Enterprising, Tenacious, Truth, Strength, Protective, Confidence, Passionate (Firey).

Lions have been extensively used in ancient Persia as sculptures and on the walls of palaces, in fire temples, tombs, on dishes and jewellery; especially during the Achaemenid Empire. The gates were adorned with lions. Evidences are found in Persepolis, Susa, Hyrcania, etc.

Some suggest the use of the Lion in conjunction to the Sun in addition to religous motifs corresponds to a romantic tales of love between a king (lion) and his queen (sun), this is of special interest because such correspondance refers to the various sun motifs in the emblem, i.e. as found some are half suns, some were full suns, some had faces, etc. which could also correspond to music.

The Lion & Sun motif may be traced back to ancient Egypt. It was the lion-god Aker who guarded the gateway to the netherworld through which the sun passed each day, he was depicted as two recumbent lion torsos merged with each other and still looking away from each other and a sun disc was put between the lions; the lions were sitting back-on-back.

Since the sun was born each morning and died each evening on the horizon, the lion was associated with death and rebirth. Aker and also the god Ruty could be depicted as a double lion god and called, "yesterday" and "tomorrow". In the middle is an ankh, The ankh symbol was so prevalent that it has been found in digs as far as Mesopotamia and Persia, and even on the seal of the biblical king Hezekiah. In some sculptures, where the sun's rays are represented as terminating in hands, the offerings which these bring are many a handled cross, emblematic of the truth that a fruitful union is a gift from the deity. Also called the symbol of life.

The history of musical development in Iran [Persia] dates back to the prehistoric era. King Jamshid, whom is credited with the "invention" of music. King Jamshid also refers to the Sun, fragmentary documents from various periods of the country's history establish that the ancient Persians possessed an elaborate musical culture.

Since the first civilization known to have a functional theory of the planets were the Babylonians, who lived in Mesopotamia in the first and second millennia BC, it can also be presumed that Persian music also had celestial correspondance, the seven dastgahs of Persian music can possibly correspond to the seven known planets that Greeks and Romans refer to in ancient texts although some of this might have been lost during the burning of the Royal Palace, a great fire ravaged the Library of Zoroastrian scriptures and Persian Royal Archives (by Alexander the Great) and also later by the Arab Islamic conquest.

In ancient Iran musicians held socially respectable positions. We know that the Elamites and the Achaemenid Empire certainly made use of musicians but we do not know what that music was like. During the Parthian era, troubadours or Gosans were highly sought after as entertainers. There are theories in Academia that perhaps the early Dari Poets of Eastern Iran like Roudaki were in fact Gosans.

Archeological evidence reveals musical instruments that were used in Persia during the Elamit era around 800 BC. History of Persian music is best explored by musical iconography, buildings, statues, column caps, portals, poems, paintings, tapestries & bas relief sculptures, albeit in silence preserve a great amount of musical information; the pictures of musicians, the shapes of instruments (in case of some instruments, the technical movements of playings) can all be found providing us with a great deal of information on what Persian music was like through-out the ages.

Alexander the Great is said to have witnessed many melodies and instruments upon his invasion, and music played an important role in religious affairs. Music played an important role in the courts of the kings of the much later Sassanid Empire. Of this period, we know the names of various court musicians like Barbad and the types of various instruments that were used like harps, lutes, flutes, bagpipes and others.

In general the Sassanian period of Khosrau II reign is regarded as an "golden age of Iranian music" and the king himself is shown in a large relief at Taq-e Bostan among his musicians and himself holding bow and arrows and while standing in a boat amidst a group of harpists. The relief depicts two boats and the whole picture shows these boats at "two successive moments within the same panel".

Also of importance is the Sasanian interest in astronomy. In the third century A.D. the first two Sasanian rulers sponsored Pahlavi translations of Greek and Sanskrit works on astronomy and astrology. Among the texts so translated were the Greek astrological treatises of Dorotheus of Sidon and Vettius Valens, and the astronomical Syntaxis mathematike (Almagest) of Ptolemy, as well as a Sanskrit astrological work by one Farmāsb (Parameśvara ?). These translations are now lost, but we do have Arabic translations of the Pahlavi version of Dorotheus of Sidon and of a Sasanian astrological treatise entitled Ketāb Zaradošt which clearly illustrate the fact that Sasanian science was indeed syncretic, based on both Greek and Indian sources.

چو بر زد باربد زین سان نوائی
نکیسا کرد از آن خوشتر ادائی
شکفته چون گل نوروز و نو رنگ
به نوروز این غزل در ساخت با چنگ

Barbad may have invented the lute and the musical tradition that was to transform into the "Maqam" tradition and eventually the Dastgah music. The term Dastgah which could mean system, could also refer to court as its literal translation could refer to "dastgah-e-hokomati" or governance system.

Barbad was the most famous and skilled court musician of the Sassanid Empire of Persia. Barbad is remembered in much documents and has been named as a remarkably high skilled musician of his time. According to the Nezami Ganjavi epic Khosrow and Shirin, Khosrau II's courtship with Shirin began in earnest when Shirin overheard Barbad singing of the king's love for her in a neighbouring tent.

He has been credited to have given an organisation of musical system consisting of seven "Royal modes" named Xosrovani (Persian: سرود خسروانى‎‎), thirty derivative modes named lahn, and 360 melodies named dastan. These numbers are in accordance with Sassanid's calendar of number of days in a week, month, and year.

His musical theories based on which these modal system was based are not known, however the writers of later period have left a list of these modes and melodies.

These names include some of epic forms such as kin-e Iraj (lit. the Vengeance of Iraj), kin-e siavash (lit. the Vengeance of Siavash), and Taxt-e Ardashir (lit. the Throne of Ardashir) and some connected with the glories of Sassanid royal court such as Bagh-e shirin (lit the garden of Shirin), Bagh-e Shahryar (lit. the Sovereign's Garden), and haft Ganj (lit. the seven treasures). There are also some of a descriptive nature like roshan cheragh (lit. bright lights).

This was the oldest Middle Eastern musical system of which some traces still exist.

According to the legends, it was Barbad, who through a song - potentially risking his life - informed the Sassanid king, Khosrau II of his most beloved horse, Shabdiz's death.

Yaqut Hamawi in Mu'jam Al-Buldan relates that Shabdiz had developed a sickness and its death appeared imminent. Khosrau II restlessly threatened that: "Whoever brings tidings of Shabdiz's death, shall be executed!".

As Shabdiz expired, the royal equerry (Pahlavi: ākhorsālār) resorted to Barbad in frustration to convey this news to Khosrau II in whichever way he deemed appropriate and receive a certain reward in exchange for the same. Once Khosrau II's feast started as usual, Barbad tuned his çārtār (four-stringed musical instrument) and played an overwhelmingly melancholic tune. "Lest Shabdiz hath died?" Khosrau II queried sorrowfully. Barbad immediately replied: "Shahanshah saith thus!".

Other famous musicians that lived during the Sassanid era were: Bamshad, Nakisa, Sarkash and Ramtin (pictured above).

Bamshad (in Persian: بامشاد) was one of the four most famous and skilled musicians, his name comes from his practice of playing music at dawn every day: "bam" and "shad" translate as "dawn" and "happiness". The Persian lexicons, for example Dehḵodā's Loḡat-nāma, describe him as a well-known musician equal to Barbad.

Nakisa was a master harpist and composer of the royal court of King Khosrau II of Persia, she collaborated with Barbad on her famous septet piece, the Royal Khosrowvani (سرود خسروانى). The main themes of her songs were in praise of King Khosrau II. She also composed the national anthem of the time. Accounts say that once Nakisa's audience was so moved by her performance that they passed out, or tore all their garments, this is now a known mode in Persian music called "jame-daran".

Another great source is Al-Farabi whom wrote a book called Kitab al-Musiqa al-Kabir (Arabic: كتاب الموسيقى الكبير‎, English: Great Book of Music) which is a treatise on music in Arabic by the Persian philosopher al-Farabi (872-950/951). The work prescribes different aspects of music such as Maqamat, and is believed to be influenced by the Pythagorean theory of harmonic ratios. In it, he presents philosophical principles about music, its cosmic qualities, and its influences. He also wrote a treatise on the Meanings of the Intellect, which dealt with music therapy and discussed the therapeutic effects of music on the soul. His book also references the philosophy of music, the process of creating music and its use in society as a whole. Imagination or خیال which is accepted as the innate ability and process of inventing partial or complete personal realms within the mind from elements derived from sense perceptions of the shared world as seen with the "mind's eye".

Even after Islam, Persian musicians did not disappear: Ziryab is often credited with being the greatest influence over Andalusian and Spanish music. He was a gifted pupil of Ishaq al-Mawsili where Ziryab got his first lessons. He left Baghdad during the reign of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun (d. 833) and moved to Córdoba in southern Iberian Peninsula, where he was accepted as court musician in the court of Abd ar-Rahman II of the Umayyad Dynasty. He was honored a monthly salary of 200 Gold Dinars and soon became even more celebrated as the court's aficionado of food, fashion, singing and music. He was also well versed in many areas of classical study such as astronomy, history, and geography.

He introduced standards of excellence in all these fields as well as setting new norms for elegant and noble manners. Ziryab became such a prominent cultural figure, and was given a huge salary from Abd al Rahman II. He was an intimate companion of the prince and established a school of music that trained singers and musicians which influenced musical performance for at least two generations after him.

Ziryab is said to have improved the Oud (or Laúd) by adding a fifth pair of strings, and using an eagle's beak or quill instead of a wooden pick. Ziryab also dyed the four strings a color to symbolize the Aristotelian humors, and the fifth string to represent the soul.

The academic Authentic Persian Music (Musiq-i-Asil) is strongly based on the theories of sonic aesthetics as expounded by the likes of Farabi in the early centuries of Islam. It also preserves melodic formula that are often attributed to the musicians of the Persian imperial court of Khosroe Parviz in the Sassanid Period. Farabi and Avicenna were not only musical theorists but adept at the lute and the Ney, respectively.

Authentic Persian Music is the music of those who have a greater share of, or affect to be in possession of, refined taste and high culture and as such, in spite of its present popularity, has always been the preserve of the elite.

Farabi made a record of all the musical pieces of his period and described the ancient note recording method. About 2,000 musical works and melodies and relics of that period have been passed on to us, including pieces from Barbod, Armove and Maraghi so that this music can be performed and played at present.

برفتم بر در شمس العماره
همون جایی که دلبر خونه داره
زدم بر حلقه در
یارم اومد دم در
بگفت کیست
بگفتم من مسکین
در رو واکن

Although musical performance continued to be controversial throughout the Islamic period, it was supported by the princely courts and by Sufi orders and, eventually, by modernizing social forces. Until the early 20th century, musiqi-e assil was heard almost entirely at the royal courts of the monarchy.

Under the later elitist Qajar dynasty, the classical system was restructured into its present form mostly through the efforts of two legendary musicians of that time, Agha Hossein-Gholi and Mirza Abdullah. The Qajar period is, by all accounts, an improtant era in the development of Iranian music. It was in this period that, following nearly two centuries of neglect, music, like many other art forms, emerged prominently within the space of the Qajar court.

Qajar rulers, pursuing the tradition left by their predecessors, made music an integral part of their life style. Musicians and composers, both male and female, were allowed to perform for the king and his guests. Today, what is recognized as classical Iranian national music has changed little since the Qajar era.

Also of importance to Royal Persian Music, is the concept of "Reng" in Persian music. Reng is a measured instrumental piece, it is usually in the final section of a dastgah or avaz and has a very lively tempo (unlike the pishdaramad or chaharmezrab). Rengs are meant to be danced with; but the art of the dance has almost disappeared in the last several decades mostly due to lack of rengi performances. Some famous rengs are included in the radif repertoire, while others have been composed later. It is almost always in 6 beats and varied tempo.

Because this is the most authentic form of Persian dance music, it can be concluded that almost all Royal music performances in the courts of Persia had some dance elements to it and that the music performed in these settings were derived from the Reng compositions. One can also argue that this form of music and improvised dance has Pre-Islamic origins and may have been one of the primary reasons why Persian music was confined & constricted to the Royal courts.

Traces of Pre-Islamic roots can be found in the tale of the birth of Raam or Venus from Simorgh (Phoenix), the naked lady is the Goddess of love, music, happiness and freedom. This is a portrayal of Simorgh (Goddess) and Raam (Goddess); taken from a 1500 years-old plate. The bird is Simorgh or Sanam and the naked lady is Raam, Zohreh, Aphrodite or Venus.

Simorgh (Phoenix) represents our capacity for vision, with its great beauty, creates intense excitement and deathless inspiration. Simorgh is our soul, humanity, purity, love and imagination that flies and give us passionate freedom. The phrase “Simorgh arises from the ashes” means; although humanity, purity and love may die and turn into ashes but, one day, they will rise again from these ashes. The wings of the Simorgh is the symbol of wind and wave and the wind is the excistence and love.

The woman in the picture is being born from Simorgh. She feels very secure as she is being protected by Simorgh while being naked. She is happy and she is dancing and, at the same time, offering grape to Simorgh. The grape is the symbol of wine. The picture is showing that the happiness, flow, dance, life and love are actually Raam (The naked women) and these are being born from Simorgh. All these, happiness, flow; love and dance are being protected by Simorgh as you can see in the picture. The plant (flower) around the picture is Nilofar, Lili.

In regards to the origin of Persian dance, all evidence points to the appearance of Mithraists about two thousand years before our calendar. The origin and rise of Persian dance as an independent and distinctive art form is estimated to be parallel with the birth of Mithraism and its spread. This centrally revolves around the ancient Persia’s sun and light God, Mithra, who is the main figure in this mystery religion that during the late antique era spread over the entire Roman Empire.

The most important ritual has been the worship of Mithra, as he is sacrificing a bull. This act was believed to promote the vigour of life. The consecration to this belief was accomplished among other rites through the baptism in the blood of a bull, followed by a ritual dance performed only by men. This ceremonial act is considered as the earliest known form of Iranian dance, and the origin of the magic dance of the antique civilisations. It is typical for sacred Persic (Persian) dance, so called “Danse Persique Sacrée”.

The most significant bases for researching around the ancient Persian dance can be found in the Greek historian from Halikarnassos, Herodotos’ superb work “Nine Books”. He describes the old history of Asian empires and Persian wars until 478 BC.

In several occasions he has indicated and in detail described the cultural and social habits of Persians. He has mentioned the wide cultural exchange that Persians had with the ancient world. “From every corner of the known (antique) world, the most appreciated artists were imported to the imperial court in order to practice their artistic abilities in the presence of the majestic Emperor and his court.”

Ketzias has specifically mentioned a sort of Persian dance, which was performed in connection with the ceremonies of Mithrakana (Mehrgan) in which even the King participated. “The King in India never appears if he is drunk. But unlike him in Persia, the Emperor drinks precious wine and devotes himself to the Persic dance during the ceremonies arranged in honor of Mithra”.

Douris from Samos reports about the same royal tradition: “Only in one occasion the King drinks wine and dances Persic dance and it is when worshipping Mithra.”

The rise of the Qajars in 1796 meant a liberalization of people’s attitude toward dancing, although this art form remained in the monopoly of the royal court. There are illustrations such as both splendid paintings and texts in form of memoirs and official reports emphasizing the popularity of these dances in court and among the elite and bourgeois families.

Among these sources, the Tarikh-e Azodi stands out in particular. The Tarikh-e Azodi is an account of the life of the early Qajar kings written by a son of Fath Ali Shah, Ahmad Mirza Azod Dowleh. From this source one learns, for instance, that at the courts of Fath Ali Shah and Mohammad Shah, two female musician troupes existed, composed of about fifty musicians each. These troupes were housed in the harem and accompanied the shah and his entourage on their official journeys.

Doost-Ali Khan Moayer ol-Mamalek, the nephew of Nasser-ed-Din Shah, reports in turn that this sovereign had the habit of going to sleep with the sound of music played by "amaleh tarab-e khasseh" (lit.: special servants of pleasure), who would play each evening taking turns until the monarch would fall asleep.

The court (darbār, darbār-e aʿẓam, dar(b)-e ḵāna) in the Qajar period was essentially organized on the ancient Perso-Turkish model inherited from the Safavid and Zand courts but with modifications in practice and function thus creating the Sublime State of Imperial Persia.

Fusion of European & Persian elements of art and culture also started at its highest order creating a fascinating art form that mixed traditional Persian art with European & Western elements.

Court musicians (arbāb-e ṭarab) were employed either individually or as part of the court ensemble (dasta) under the chief musician (rīāsat-e arbāb-e ṭarab). Under Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah the Euro­pean director of the department of military music in the Dār al-Fonūn also served as director of the court military band (mūzīkāṇčī-bāšī).

ای چنگ پرده های سپاهانم آرزوست
وی نای،ناله خوش سوزانم آرزوست
در پرده حجاز، بگو خوش ترانه ای
من هدهدم، صفیر سلیمانم آرزوست
از پرده عراق به عشاق تحفه بر
چون راست و بوسیلک خوش الحانم آرزوست
آغاز کن حسینی، زیرا که مایه گفت
کان زیر خرد و زیر بزرگانم آرزوست
در خواب کرده ای ز رهاوی مرا کنون
بیدار کن به زنگله ام، کانم آرزوست
این علم موسیقی بر من چون شهادت است
چون مؤمنم، شهادت و ایمانم آرزوست

The naqqāra-ḵāna-ye mobāraka, an ancient Persian institution that survived until the Pahlavi period, announced the movement of the sun in the sky five times daily with traditional military instruments and also declared the start of royal celebrations and annual festivities. The shah’s storyteller (naqqāl-e homāyūn) and chief court jester (dalqak-bāšī) were much appreciated.

Famous musicians of the Qajar period include Darvish Khan (Persian: درویش‌خان ‎‎, Gholam Hossein Darvish; 1872 – 22 November 1926) whom was a Persian classical musician and whom his teachers included his father and Aqa Hossein-Qoli Farahani.

He was a member of the Aziz Soltan music group. Later, he attended the Dar ol-Fonoon Music School. He received the First-Class medal from the French government for his works and concerts for the indigent. Darvish was a very talented player and composer of tar. He added a sixth cord to this instrument in order to extend its tuning possibilities and to enhance its sound. He is known to have invented 'pish-daramad', a free-standing composition played at the beginning of a performance.

Mirza Abdollah, also known as Agha Mirza Abdollah Farahani (Persian: میرزا عبدالله فراهانی‎‎), (b. 1843 – 1918) was a tar and setar player. He is among the most significant musicians in Iran's history. Born in Tehran, he and his younger brother Mirza Hossein Gholi started learning music from their father Ali Akbar Farahani who was a well-known musician.

He is best known for his radif for tar and setar and for his fruitful music lessons. Abolhasan Saba, Esmaeil Ghahremani and Ali-Naqi Vaziri were among his students.

If there are a few artists who have heavily influenced the twentieth century Persian classical music by their work and style, Abolhasan Saba is for sure one of them. Every one of his students later become respected masters in their ground, Hossein Tehrani (Tombak), Ali Tajvidi (violin), Faramarz Payvar (santur), Hasan Kasa'i (Ney), Hossein Dehlavi (composer) have always insisted on the incredible teaching capacities of their master.

He was praised for his deep humanism and artistic ethics and as he disregarded material gain from his art like many other great musicians of his time, poverty never actually left him.

Saba was a visionary artist being at the source of real innovations in Persian music and at the same time always remembered as one of the guardians of this tradition. And this is certainly thanks to his ability to be open to other musical forms – be it regional folklore of Iran or Western music – and other arts while never giving up the essence of the traditions he once received from his masters, Mirza Abdollah and Darvish Khan. As a matter of fact, he both rejected conservative traditionalism that would accept no form of novelty and ultra-modernism that despised Persian Classical music as old fashioned and underdeveloped.

چون چنگم، از زمزمه خود، خبرم نیست
اسرار همی گویم و اسرار ندانم
(مولوی،1361،غزل 1487)

The melodies performed on tar, an instrument developed in the middle of the eighteenth century of Persia. were considered useful for headache, insomnia and melancholy, as well as for eliminating nervous and muscle spasms. Listening to this instrument was believed to induce a quiet and philosophical mood, compelling the listener to reflect upon life. Its solemn melodies were thought to cause a person to relax and fall asleep.

The author of Qabusnameh (11th century) recommends that when selecting musical tones (pardeh), to take into account the temperament of the listener. He suggested that lower pitched tones (bam) were effective for persons of sanguine and phlegmatic temperaments, while higher pitched tones (zeer) were helpful for those who were identified with a choleric temperament or melancholic temperament.

The following are notes taken from Dr. Safvat & Morteza Varzi from the Center for Preservation and Propagation of Iranian Music. Some credit Dr. Safvat with saving traditional music from obliteration in the 1970s. Dr. Safvat himself claims the person who had the most influence on his life and music was Ostad Elahi, a Persian judge, philosopher, theologian and master musician. In March 2005, he received "Ordre des Arts et des Lettres" granted by the French government. He was a student of Abolhasan Saba.

Mood: burning, pining, sympathetic, sorrowful, tender, consoling
Color: red
Element: fire

The mode Shur is caracterized by burning and pining; it is sympathetic, sorrowful, tender, consoling while it represents intensity and concentration. The word shur itself means 'passion'. Its color is red and its element is fire.

Its time is from morning on until noon and its mystic connotation is tariqat (the mystical path). Shur is considered as the 'mother of modes' The modal scale of Shur us G Ap Bb C Dp Eb F G with altered notes in modulated sectios such as Shahnaz and Bayat-e-Kord. Shur expresses burning passion, waves of love and romance in general with all its joys and sorrows. The musical interpretation of Shr can be said to portray the emotional intensity of seperation from the beloved.

Avaz-e Abu Ata
Mood: meloncholy, moving
Color: purple or bright coffee color
Element: earth

Abu Ata is melancholy and moving. Its color is purple or bright coffee color and its element is earth. Its time is noon until 4 p.m. and it mystic connotation ranges from shariat (the religious law) to tariqat. Abu Ata expresses experience of past love in an older wiser way with higher expectations. The modal scale of Abu Ata is G Ap Bb C D Eb F G with an altered E in Oshshaq.

Mood: nostalgic, religious
Color: black
Element: earth

Bayat-e Tork is nostalgic, meditative and religious. Its color is black and its element earth. Its time is from noon to 4 p.m and its mystic connotation ranges from shariat (the law) to tariqat. Certain gushe of Tork are used for Islamic religious chants such as the azan. The song text for the masnavi section at the end of Tork, which is sung in the masnavi section of other modes as well, exemplifies the philosophy of Sufism. It is the story of the reed called nei name, in which the reed represents man and the wind is spirit emanating from a divine source. The reed is also the flute whose sorrowful song tells of mans longing to be reunited wit his divine source. Tork expresses only spiritual love and the love of nature. The modal scale of Tork is F G Ab Bb C D Eb F with an altered D and A in Shekaste.

Mood: harrowing, plaintive
Color: brown
Elements: earth

Dashti is harrowing and plaintive. Its color is brown and its element is earth. Its time is from noon to 4 p.m. and its mystic connotation ranges from shariat to tariqat. Many of the folksongs of the nothern area, the Caspian coast in particular, are in Dashti (as is the gushe Deilaman at the end of Dashti). The ame of the gushe Gilaki refers to the western Caspian province of Gilan. Dashti expresses the oneand only love of a young person, the complaint, whining and pining of the lovelorn. The modal scale of Dashti is G Ap Bb C D(p) Eb F G with an altered E and A in 'Oshashaq'. The 2nd note above the tonic shifts from natural to semiflat, natural usually when melodic passages go upwards and semiflat when they descend. Tis gives te mode Dashti a special plaintive tinge.

Mood: pain, sorrow, seperation
Color: burnt brown
Element: earth

Afshari expresses sorrow, seperation and metaphysical depth. Its color is burnt brown and it element earth. Its time is from noon to 4 p.m. and its mystic connotation ranges from Shariat to Tariqat. Afshari expresses temporary complaints of love, fear of losing it, love in its more metaphysical character. The modal scale of Afshari is F G Ap Bp C D(p) Eb F with option of an altered E and A in Araq.

Mood: stately, noble, joyous, melancholy
Color: dark green
Element: flame

Homayun is stately, dignified, mobile, exstatic, joyous and melancholic. Its color is dark green and its element is flame. Its time is early morning and its mystic connotation haqiqat (spiritual truth). Homayun creates a royal atmosphere and expresses the complaints and crying of love ending in sorrow, as well as the greatness of love in its higher form. Wheras other modes portray ones own feelings of love, Homayun can express express others feelings of love. The description of the beloved reaces the divine in Homayun. The modal scale of Homayun is G Ap B C D Eb F G with an altered E, A and B in Oshshaq and Ozal, and an alterd D and E in Mansuri.

Mood: reflective, meditative
Color: light green
Element: light of fire

Isfahan is mystic, metaphysical, spiritual, profound, wise, reflective and meditative. Its color is light or turquoise green and its element is the light of fire. Its time is before sunrise and its mystic connotation is haqiqat. Isfahan expresses spiritual love, the sorrow of love and longing for past love. The modal scale of Isfahan is C D Eb F G Ap B C with the E and B altered in Oshshaq and Shah-Khatai.

Mood: pain, chagrin, sorrow culminating in hope
Color: dark lapis blue
Element: water

Segah expounds pain, chagrin and sorrow culminating in hope. Its color is dark lapis blue and its element is water. Its time is from late afternoon to sunset and its mystic connotation is tariqat. Segah expresses the past and the successes of love and its sorrows, culminating in hope. The modal scale of Segah is F G Ap Bb C Dp Eb F with an altered D and C in the Hesar and an altered Ab and Ep in the Mokhalef modulation near the end of the mode.

Mood: powerful, heroic, festive, wise, philosophical, profoundly moving
Color: yellow or gold
Element: steam

Chahargah is powerful, heroic, festive, exciting, wise, philosophical, profoundly moving and patriotic. Its color is yellow or gold and its element is steam. Its time is from 6 to 8 a.m. and its mystical connotation is tariqat. Chahargah is used to accompany the recitation of the heroic epic, the Shahname. Chahargah expresses the past of love as well as the joy of love and boasts of the success of love. The modal scale of Chahargah is C Dp E F G Ap B C with an altered D, E and F in Hesar.

Mood: happy, gay, majestic, noble
Color: sky blue
Element: wind or breeze

Mahur is happy, gay, majestic and noble. Its color is sky blue and its element is wind or breeze. Its time is after sunset and its mystic connotation os shariat. The modal scale of Mahur is basically the major scale with alternate flats and semiflats in certain modulations. After its various metered and nonmetered melodic segments, its major and minor modulations, Mahur ends in the Saqiname, which, in the text celebrates the spiritual wine which causes the joy of spiritual intoxication. The modal scale of Mahur is C D E F G A B C with Ap and Bb in Delkash, Bb in Hesar, Ep and Bb in Shekaste, Ep or Ev in Araq, an Eb option and Ap in Rak and Ep F# and Bb in Sufiname.

Mood: concentration
Color: light tan
Element: earth

Rastpanjgah, which resembles Mahur seems to set a mood conducive to thinking, concentration and enlightments. It is an intellectual mode which can be associated with logical reasoning. It brings to mind a light tan color. Its element is refined earth or dust. Its time seems to fit the late morning hours from about 8 until 10 a.m. and its mystic connotation is shariat. Rastpanjgah encompasses the emotions of the other modal systems and denotes mixture and expansion. The scale of Rastpanjgah is C D E(p) F G A B C with the option of Ep, Eb, Ap and Bb in various modulated sections such as Oshshaq, Zabol, Qarache, Araq and Rak.

Mood: peaceful, serene, sacred, admonitive
Color: transparent
Element: fire with wind

Nava is peaceful, serene, sacred and admonitive. Its color is transparent but might also be a pastel derived from red. Its element is fire with wind. Its time is late evenng and its mystic connotation marifat (gnosis). Nava expresses distant memories of past love, it can represent an experienced individual speaking of sorrow. The scale of Nava is D Ep F G A Bb C D with altered notes in modulated sections such as Nahoft, Neishaburak, Araq, Gavesht, Khojaste and Majosli. Poetry sung in Nava is philosophical. One gushe, Nahoft dates back to Sasanin times and is cited by Ibn Sina with the same scale.

Although described above any practice other than simply performing music is considered occult practices and is deemed haram and forbidden by many.